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    Located in the northwest of Anhui Province and the southern end of North China, Bozhou is 330 km from the capital city Hefei. It is not only a “famous city of history and culture of China” and one of the “first batch of excellent tourism cities of China”, but also a vibrant and vigorous “emerging energy city” and a “modern TCM city”.

    1. Administrative Division

    Bozhou City is a provincially administered city established with the approval of the State Council in May 2000, which exercises jurisdiction over three counties and one district, Guoyang, Mengcheng, Lixin Counties and Qiaocheng District, of which Qiaocheng District is where the offices of the city’s CPC Committee and government are located. By the end of 2017, the city consisted of 89 towns and sub-districts, specifically 79 towns and 10 sub-districts. The administrative region of the whole city covers 8,522.58 km2, with a total population of 6.508 million people.

    2. Natural Environment

    Located at 115°53′~116°49′E and 32°51′~35°05′N, Bozhou is goes inclined from southeast to northwest, with a length of about 150 km and a width of about 90 km. It is connected with the fan-like breach of the Yellow River. Being a plain, the terrain is flat, with an average elevation of 22-42.5 meters, with dozens of limestone monadnocks distributed in its east such as Longshan Hill, Shigong Hill, Qishan Hill, Langshan Hill and Shuangsuo Hill.

    The city lies in the southern edge of the warm temperate zone, so its climate belongs to the warm temperate semi-humid climate zone, showing distinctive transitional characteristics, mainly featuring a distinctive monsoon, a moderate climate, abundant sunshine, moderate rainfall, a long frost-free season. With four distinctive seasons, the temperature is changeful in the spring, the rainfall is concentrated in the summer, it is cool and refreshing in the autumn and a dry and long winter. The climatic transition results in frequent encounters of cold and warm air masses and changeful weathers. The inter-annual precipitation change is great. The annual average temperature of the city is 14.9℃, the average sunshine duration is 2,184 hours, the average frost-free season is 213 days and the average annual rainfall is 831 mm.

    The rivers of Bozhou belong to the Huaihe River system, with major trunk rivers including Guohe River, Xifei River, Cihuaixin River, Beifei River and Qianhe River. Guohe River flows into the city from Anliu Town of Qiaocheng District and flows southeastwards past Guoyang County and flows out of the city via Yicun Village of Mengcheng County into Huaiyuan County, with a length of 173 km in the city and drainage area of 4,039 km2. Xifei River flows into the city via Feihe Town of Qiaocheng District and flows southeastwards past Guoyang County and flows out of the city via Zhangou Town of Lixin County into the boundary between Fengtai and Haoshang Counties, with a length of 123.4 km in the city and a drainage area of 1,871 km2. Cihuaixin River flows into the city via Daliji Town of Lixin County and flows eastwards past the south of Lixin County and flows out of the city via Licang Town of Mengcheng County into Huaiyuan County, with a length of 66 km in the city and a drainage area of 1,401 km2.

    3. History

    Bozhou is an ancient city with a long history, recorded with activities of the humankind as early as the Neolithic Age. In the Period of Emperor Yan and Huang, Emperor Ku took the throne for Zhuan Xu and set its capital in Bo for nearly 400 years. Chengtang eliminated Xia and established Shang dynasty and set its capital in Bo for 190 years. Since Qiaoxian county was established in Qin, it was established as a prefecture or a county in past dynasties successively. In Zhizheng 15th year of Yuan dynasty (1355), Liu Futong launched an uprising against Yuan dynasty and supported Han Lin’er to take the throne in Bozhou and establish a regime of “Song”, with Bozhou as its capital. So far, Bozhou had officially become an ancient capital of “three dynasties”. In 1912, the government of the Republic of China degraded Bozhou to Boxian county, directly under the administration of the province. After the New China was established, Boxian county was established. In 1986, the State Council decided to withdraw Boxian county and establish Bozhou city (county-level). In 1998, it was directly under the administration of the province again (sub-prefecture level). In May 2000, the State Council approved Bozhou City as a provincially administered city (prefecture-level).

    4. Natural Resources

    Bozhou is blessed with favorable natural conditions and rich natural resources. The total area of land resources of the whole city is 852,258 hectares, including 707,929 hectares of agricultural land, 124,790 hectares of construction land, 19,539 hectares of unused land. It is very rich in coal and petroleum resources, with an accumulated identified resource reserve of 5.7 billion tons, including a coal reserve of 5.02 billion tons. The total volume of water resources of the whole city is 2.656 billion m³. There are more than 400 species of herbal medicines and plants, with a planting area of 773,300 hectares. In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the herbal medicines named with a character “Bo” include “Bo peony”, “Bo chrysanthemum”, “Bo mulberry bark” and “Bo pollen”. In 1995, Jiang Zemin, then the chairman of China, inscribed gladly “the hometown of Hua Tuo, the hometown of herbal medicines” for Bozhou. Its grain crops include wheat, corn and beans. In 2017, the total output of grains was 4.834 million tons. It was one of the major grain producing areas of China. Its major commercial crops include corn, cotton, tobacco and vegetables. Its livestock and poultry industries were developed. Guoyang, Mengcheng and Lixin were honored as “Golden Triangle of Yellow Cattle”.

    5. Famous Figures

    Bozhou is abundant in outstanding people and talents. For thousands of years, a lot of sages and famous figures that have passed their name in the history were born on the ancient, magical, vibrant, beautiful and fertile land, such as Lao Zi, the founder of Taoism who is reputed in the world, Zhuang Zi, a sage of philosophy, Cao Cao, a famous politician, militarist and litterateur, Hua Tuo, a miraculous doctor who invented “anesthesia powder” and “five-animal boxing”, Hua Mulan, a heroine who joined the army on behalf of her father, and Chen Tuan, a famous scholar of Song Dynasty who was proficient in poetry, literature, calligraphy, painting and the study of changes. Big names of the literary circle such as Ouyang Xiu, Zeng Gong and Yan Shu also served as an official in Bozhou successively. It has made an important contribution to the glorious ancient civilization of China.

    6. Scenic Spots and Historical Sites

    The long history and brilliant culture have left a great many historical sites and cultural heritages in Bozhou. In Bozhou there are more than 226 cultural heritages under protection at different levels, including 7 ones under national protection and 38 ones under provincial protection, accounting for 1/3 of all protected cultural heritages of the province. There are 7 national 4A tourist attractions, 3 national-level intangible cultural heritages and 101 provincial and municipal level intangible cultural heritages. Its famous cultural landscapes include the ruins of Yuchi Temple dating to the Neolithic Age which is honored as “the No.1 primeval village of China”, the Flower Peking Opera Theater, a cultural heritage under national protection, which is famous for brick and wood hollow engravings, Taiqing Palace, the No. 1 palace of Taoism in China (commonly known as Lao Zi Temple), the tunnel used by Cao Cao to transfer troops which is honored as “the underground Great Wall”, the Huazu Nunnery whose name was inscribed by Guo Moruo, a great contemporary litterateur and historian, the tombs of Cao Family which were great and well-constructed, the Museum of Bozhou with rich collections of antiques and cultural relics that represent the civilization history of Bozhou of more than 5,000 years, the Gujing liquor cultural museum that narrates the origin, inheritance and promotion of liquor culture, and Ming and Qing old streets that preserve the styles of Ming and Qing dynasties, and the like. It has won four national honors, namely, “the first batch of units creating a national demonstrative area of TCM health tourism”, “the global destination of health tourism along the Belt and Road”, the “capital of five-animal boxing, international fitness qigong” and “the capital of herbal diet of China”. The cultural tourism area centered on Bozhou is one of the three tourism segments of Anhui.

    7. Regional Traffic

    Located in the strategic position of the Central Plain, Bozhou has been known as “the pass connecting north and south, the lock of the Central Plains”. With distinctive niche advantages, it has always been an important commercial port and a strategic military place. Bozhou boasts convenient traffic, with Beijing-Kowloon Railway and Qinglongshan-Fuyang Railway running through it, national roads 311, 105, 237, 329 and 344 and 18 provincial roads such as S102, S238, S239, S411, S416 crossing and passing through its downtown. Jinan-Gangzhou Expressway, Nanjing-Luoyang Expressway, Sixian-Xuchang Expressway and Jinan-Qimen Expressway form a “derrick”-shaped expressway network in Bozhou. The navigation of Guohe River and Cihuaixin River can directly reach the rivers and sea. It is 60 km from Shangqiu Airport to the north and 120 km from Fuyang Airport to the south. Its post and telecommunication network covers all towns and villages. The construction of Tangwang Tunnel and Jian’an Tunnel are being pushed forward steadily, the construction of Shangqiu-Hangzhou High-speed Railway is accelerated and the early stage work of Bozhou Airport is being pushed forward in an orderly manner.

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